Computers in Education: Research Methods and Practice
University of Maryland, College of Education, EDHD-779N & 499N, Fall 2002
The following subject areas will be covered with a selection of readings: 1) General Impact of Technology on Education 2) Technology Impact on Course Content 3) Collaborative Learning Supported by Technology 4) Online Environments 5) Special Education Supported by Technology 6) Developing New Technologies for Education 7) Final Project Materials
1) General Impact of Technology on Education:
to the President, (February 24, 1999) President's Information Technology
Advisory Committee (PITAC)
Report to the President Information Technology Research: Investing in Our Future
PITAC Report: http://www.ccic.gov/ac/report/
Sabelli, N (June 2001). The Goals
behind the Rhetoric: Why We Don't Always Talk about Technology When We Talk
about Technology in Education. iMP Magazine.
. . two lines of argument can be brought to bear in discussing the educational
E.A. & Jennings, N. (Fall/Winter 2000). Children
and Computers: New Technology—Old Concerns. The Future of Children:
Children and Computer Technology, 10(2).
overview of the recurrent themes and patterns in media research throughout the
past century, placing current research on children and computers in a historical
context with earlier research on film, radio, and television.
M. (2001). Closing the Fluency Gap. Communications
of the ACM, 44 (3).
need to develop a new generation of computer technologies worthy of the next
generation of children. These new technologies should provide children with
“design leverage,” enabling them to create things that would have been
difficult for them to create in the past. At the same time, the new technologies
should provide children with “conceptual leverage,” enabling them to learn
concepts that would have been difficult for them to learn in the past.
S. & Caperton, G. (1999). Vision for
Education: The Caperton-Papert Platform
essay was written for the 91st annual National Governors' Association meeting
held in St. Louis, Missouri in August of 1999.
2) Technology Impact on Course Content:
J. M, Pea, R. D., Hoadley, C. M., Gordin, D. N., & Means, B. (Fall/Winter
2000). Changing How and What Children
Learn in School with Computer-Based Technologies. The Future of Children:
Children and Computer Technology, 10(2).
paper explores the various ways computer technology can be used to improve how
and what children learn in school. Several
examples of computer applications are highlighted to illustrate ways technology
can enhance how children learn. The
paper concludes with a discussion of the structural and organizational changes
needed to help ensure computers are used effectively for learning.
White Paper Report (2000). Information
Technology and Writing—the Research. Research on Technology in Education,
is relatively easy to determine that the changes in reading and writing are
improvements for both readers and writers. It is less easy to determine if these
same changes are improving the learning that occurs when students read and write
with new forms of technology. The question of improved benefits for students is
still being researched. Do students read and write with greater skill as a
result of the new tools? Do they learn better as a consequence of the new tools?
Falba, C. J., Grove, K., Anderson, D. G., & Putney, L.
G. (Summer 2001). Benefits of Laptop Computers for Elementary Teachers.
Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 33(5).
This paper describes the benefits of providing laptop computers to elementary teachers. They found that access to
laptops at school and at home positively affected these teachers' technology use.
J. (2000). The Future of Technology in
K-12 Arts Education. White Paper for the U.S. Department of Education,
Requested as a result of: Forum on Technology in Education: Envisioning the
purpose of this white paper is to discuss the future role of technology in arts
education while addressing the impact technology has on teaching and learning in
this content area. The paper begins with an overview of national standards for
music, theatre, the visual arts, and dance.
The paper goes on to discuss integrating technology into the curriculum,
instruction and assessment in these disciplines.
3) Collaborative Learning Supported by Technology:
K. M., Ho-Ching, W., Kuederle, O.,
Scott, S. D., & Shoemaker, G. (1999). This
is fun! We're all best friends and we're all playing. Supporting children's
synchronous collaboration. Proceedings of Computer Supported Collaborative
Learning (CSCL) '99. December 1999. Stanford, CA.
paper presents preliminary results from a research study which examined pairs of
elementary school children playing a puzzle solving game in various
collaborative conditions. Children's activity and engagement levels when playing
on a computer with multiple input devices was compared to other traditional
collaborative settings (paper-based, common desktop configuration).
E. (June 2001). Kamrat: The Story of a Virtual Multicultural Learning Community in
Israel. iMP Magazine.
paper is about the creation in 2000 of an ongoing learning community Kamrat, a
multicultural online learning community, between two schools in Israel: one
Israeli Arab school (A) and the other an Israeli Jewish school (J). The tools
used for the creation of this community were two: a closed network in Hebrew and
the Internet. http://www.cisp.org/imp/june_2001/06_01aphek.htm
Mulder, I., Swaak, J., & Kessels, J. (2002). Assessing group learning and shared understanding in technology-mediated interaction. Educational
Technology & Society 5(1).
This study focuses on ways of assessing shared
understanding. A conceptual framework is described that makes a distinction between the process of reaching
shared understanding and the resulting shared understanding. The conceptual ideas lead to a coding scheme for
observing the processes of shared understanding and to the definition of product measures, among others a
scale to assess perceived shared understanding. Then an empirical study is presented, in which the model is
Guzdial, M. & Turns, J. (2000). Effective Discussion Through a
Computer-Mediated Anchored Forum The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 9(4), 437-469.
the last decade, distance education has changed significantly with the use of
computer-mediated learning, two-way interactive video, and a variety of other
technologies. In this paper, we explore the idea that specific
features of a discussion forum may increase the likelihood of effective discussions taking place within the
forum. We define effective discussions as those that are sustained and are focused on topics related to class
learning goals. We then describe the specifications for an electronic discussion forum-a computer-mediated
anchored discussion forum-that we propose makes sustained on-topic discussion more likely. We report on the
results of two studies that support this proposal. We end by exploring implications for research into
computer-supported discussion tools for learning and their design.
4) Online Environments:
Web-Based Education Commission (December 19, 2000). The
Power of the Internet for Learning: Moving from Promise to Practice.
Washington DC. (For class: Chapter 1- The Power of the Internet for Learning)
in November 1999, the 16 members of the Commission-appointed by President
Clinton, Education Secretary Richard Riley, and the Democratic and Republican
leadership of Congress-met with hundreds of education, business, policy, and
technology experts. The legislative authority for the Commission expired n March
a result of these meetings and the input provided by witnesses at hearings and
through e-Testimony submitted on the web site, the Commission developed the
A. (1998). Community Support for
Constructionist Learning. Computer Supported Cooperative Work 7:47-86.
experience with over 180 children and 90 adults using the system since October
1995, it was found that the community provides role models; situated, ubiquitous
project models; emotional support to overcome technophobia; technical support;
and an appreciative audience for completed work. This paper examines the nature
of that support in detail, and argues that community support for learning is an
essential element in collaborative work and learning on the Internet's essential
support for the children.
N. (June 2001). Why Filters Won't Protect
Our Children: Libraries, Democracy and Access. iMP Magazine.
do not help people when we simply wall them off from information and ideas that
are controversial or disturbing. If people are to succeed in the information
age, they must learn to be discerning users of information. Simply put, people
who aren't logged on won't be literate in the 21st century.
J. (2000). Online Communities. John
Wiley & Sons (For class: Chapter 1- Introduction).
term ‘online community’ is used for many kinds of social interactions. This
chapter examines the meaning of the term, suggests a definition and raises some
key issues regarding its use. The chapter also introduces the terms sociability
and usability, the key themes running through the book.
Bisciglia, M. G. & Monk-Turner, E. (2002). Differences in Attitudes Between On-Site and
Distance-Site Students in Group Teleconference Courses. The American Journal of Distance Education, 16(1) 37-52.
In this study we show that students who attend class off campus and who work full time generally have a more positive attitude toward
distance education when compared with others. Distance-site students are also more likely to be motivated and willing to take another
distance education class compared with their on-site peers. Off-site students were much more likely than on-site students to feel the
grading process was not a fair one.
5) Special Education Supported by Technology:
Hasselbring, T.S. & Glaser, C. H.W. (Fall/Winter 2000). Use of Computer Technology to Help Students with Special Needs. The Future of Children: Children and Computer Technology, 10(2).
paper offers an overview of the various ways computer technology can help the
nearly five million students with disabilities become active learners in the
classroom alongside their nondisabled peers.
Examples of the use of word processing, communication, and research
projects using multimedia will be discussed.
D. (June 200). Designing Adaptive Technology for Those with Learning
Disabilities. iMP Magazine.
of the limiting factors of adaptive technology have been reliability,
portability, complexity/too many features, cost and interfaces that directly
stress the individual's weakest skills. This article discusses some new trends
in adaptive and mainstream technology that, if adopted by the design community,
could mean greater autonomy for those with learning disabilities and better
tools for all.
Council on Disability (May 31, 2000). Federal Policy Barriers to Assistive
Technology. Washington, DC
research for this report included (a) a review of the professional literature;
(b) a review of federal policies; (c) stakeholder surveys; and (d) a review and
analysis of findings by Tech Watch. As a result of this research, NCD identified
four major barriers and makes 11 recommendations for reducing barriers to
assistive technology access for individuals with disabilities.
D. & Meyer, A. (2000). The future is in the margins: The role of
technology and disability in educational reform.
White Paper for the U.S. Department of Education, Requested as a result
of: Forum on Technology in Education: Envisioning the Future.
purpose of this white paper is to discuss the future role of technology in the
lives of students with disabilities. New technologies that change the nature of
learning, teaching, the concept of media, and classroom assessment will all be
discussed in this paper.
6) Developing New Technologies for Education:
K. M. (1999). Designing Handheld Technologies for Kids. Personal
Technologies Journal, 3(1&2),
paper investigates issues surrounding the design of handheld computers for
children's use in learning environments. It focuses on child-centered design,
engaging children as active participants in the design of handheld technologies.
Two central issues are addressed: mobility and sharability.
J. & Ryokai, K. (in press). Making Space for Voice: Technologies to
Support Children's Fantasy and Storytelling. Personal Technologies 3(4).
paper introduces StoryMat, a system that supports children's own voice in their
own storytelling play. StoryMat offers a child-driven play space by recording
and recalling children's narrating voices, and the movements they make with
their toys on the mat. This paper addresses the importance of supporting young
children's fantasy play and suggests a new way for technology to play an
integral part in that activity.
Colella, V. (2000). Participatory Simulations: Building Collaborative Understanding Through Immersive Dynamic Modeling. The
Journal of the Learning Sciences, 9(4), 471-500.
This article describes and analyzes a set of participatory simulations that were
conducted with a group of high school biology students. The students' experiences are tracked from their initial encounter with an
immersive simulation through their exploration of the system and final description of its underlying rules. The article explores the
educational potential of participatory simulations. The results of this pilot study suggest an opportunity to further investigate the
role that personal experience can play in developing inquiry skills and scientific understanding.
A., Bederson, B., Hourcade, J. P., Sherman, L., Revelle, G., Platner, M., &
Weng, S. (2001) Designing
a Digital Library for Young Children: An Intergenerational Partnership.
Proceedings of ACM/IEEE Joint
Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL 2001).
more information resources become accessible using computers, our digital
interfaces to those resources need to be appropriate for all people. However
when it comes to digital libraries, the interfaces have typically been designed
for older children or adults. Therefore, we have begun to develop a digital
library interface developmentally appropriate for young children (ages 5-10
Alborzi, H., Druin, A., Montemayor, J., Sherman, L., Taxen, G., Best,
J., Hammer, J., Kruskal, A., Lal, A., Plaisant Schwenn, T., Sumida, L., Wagner,
R., & Hendler, J. (2000). Designing
StoryRooms: Interactive Storytelling Spaces for Children. Proceedings of
Designing Interactive Systems (DIS) 2000.
access to space, costly props, and complicated authoring technologies are among
the many reasons why children can rarely enjoy the experience of authoring
room-sized interactive stories. Typically in these kinds of environments,
children are restricted to being story participants, rather than story authors.
Therefore, we have begun the development of "StoryRooms," room-sized
immersive storytelling experiences for children.
7) Final Project Materials:
Proposal Guidelines. http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2001/nsf012a/start.html
Conference Paper Format. http://www.acm.org/sigs/sigchi/chipubform/
Guide to Successful Paper Submissions. http://www.acm.org/sigchi/chi2000/call/submissions/guide-papers.html